News flash: Climate change imperils wolverines and Feds must act! That’s the recent headline from ABC news, reporting on court proceedings in Missoula, Montana. On Monday, April 4th, “U.S. District Judge Dana Christensen ordered wildlife officials to act as quickly as possible to protect the species as it becomes vulnerable to a warming planet.”
Cue the climate change deniers and those who don’t know much of anything about wolverines: “Wolverines are tough animals. I really don’t think ‘climate change’ is anything they can’t handle,” said one commenter at the Missoulian Facebook page.“There is no evidence suggesting that wolverines will not adapt sufficiently to diminished late spring snow pack (assuming there is any) to maintain viability,” wrote Wyoming governor Matt Mead back in May of 2013 (in the Northern Rockies, Montana and Idaho also opposed listing). But snow joke–snow matters. Wolverines are obligate snow denners who require remote, deep, and usually high elevations snow fields that persist well into spring. This is where natal and maternal dens enable them to birth and raise their young–in other words, enable them to survive.
Flash back to Feb. 4, 2013, when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (henceforth FWS) proposed listing the North American wolverine as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. The final determination would be made in one year, “based on the best available science.” A year later, FWS extended the comment deadline by six months “to further evaluate areas of scientific disagreement and uncertainty as they relate to the wolverine listing decision” (2/4/14 news release). At issue: “some peer reviewers questioned the information we used to describe wolverine habitat, and estimates of the likely impacts to wolverine habitat from future climate change.” Oh, and did I mention that the states were unhappy? Montana, in fact, was poised to offer its annual wolverine trapping season as recently as the winter of 2012-13; it was halted–the day before the season was to open–by a district judge.
Subsequent to the extended comment deadline and in response to “peer review and state comments we received after publication of the proposed rule to list wolverines,” FWS convened a wolverine science panel on April 3-4, 2014 (findings here). Then, on August 13, 2014, FWS officially reversed itself, withdrawing its proposal to list the wolverine as ‘threatened’ in the contiguous states:
While it is clear that the climate is warming, after carefully considering the best available science, the Service has determined that the effects of climate change are not likely to place the wolverine in danger of extinction now or in the foreseeable future. As a result, the wolverine does not meet the statutory definition of either a “threatened species” or an “endangered species” and does not warrant protection under the ESA (source).
That’s the story in a nutshell–oh, except for the leaked memo!
According to a leaked memo obtained by the Center for Biological Diversity, scientists with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have been ordered to reverse their own conclusions and withdraw last year’s proposal to protect American wolverines under the Endangered Species Act (7/7/14 CBD news release).
A broad coalition of conservation groups challenged FWS’s refusal to protect imperiled wolverines, and that challenge was met with victory on Monday in Missoula. (Read the decision here, courtesy of the Western Environmental Law Center. View the original complaint here.) According to the Wolverine Blog, “the court ruling does not require the USFWS to grant wolverines protected status under the Endangered Species Act, but it does find that the USFWS discounted the best available science and applied unnecessarily stringent standards of scientific certainty and precision in reaching the decision not to list.”
Now FWS must reconsider its decision to forego protecting Gulo gulo—this time actually using the best available science instead of caving to political pressure from Western states and their henchmen Farm Bureaus and snowmobile associations.
“Gulo” is Latin for glutton, referring to the wolverine’s voracious appetite. But the skunk bear has no appetite for politics…that falls to his human allies. Thankfully, they’ve proven every bit as tenacious and muscular as the wolverine when it comes to protecting the magnificent mustelid.
- UPDATE: “FWS denies political pressure killed wolverine listing” (4/6/16) here.
- A world first: footage of wild wolverine kits as mom moves them from den to den.
- “Leaked federal memo orders biologists to abandon wolverine protection,” KCET.
- Comprehensive action timeline (starts in 1994) from Center for Biological Diversity regarding wolverine listing, here.
- The Wolverine Foundation; The Wolverine Blog (a very good info source)
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